This chapter discusses the performance monitoring and evaluation (M&E) culture in Benin, Uganda and South Africa conducted through the Twende Mbele African M&E partnership. In Benin and South Africa, leadership changes have meant that the strength of national champions has varied, while there has been stronger continuity in Uganda. In Benin this has been due particularly to changes in the presidency and shifts of the location between a ministry and presidency, while in South Africa it is changes in leadership of the M&E champion. In Uganda and Benin there are much higher levels of involvement of civil society in M&E systems, with civil society and donors represented on M&E coordination structures, whereas in South Africa involvement of civil society is weak. The Mo Ibrahim index on access to public information shows South Africa scoring high, Uganda midway, and Benin very low and falling.