Chapter 8 deals with participatory approaches and knowledge co-production methods for collecting data that can be used to understand how and why social-ecological systems (SES) change. The chapter discusses participatory mapping, photovoice, transect walks, ranking exercises, focus group discussions, Venn diagrams, matrix scoring, ecograms, timelines, Q-methodology, community mapping, participatory videography, photo elicitation, seasonal calendars, participatory action research, participatory rural appraisal, participant observation and arts-based methods. It goes on to discuss the types of SES problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of participatory data collection methods, and suggested further readings.