Chapter 15 deals with the set of methods related to action research, which aims to address practical challenges and bring research into everyday experience and practice. Action research includes first-person practices, addressing the ability of individual researchers to foster an inquiring approach to their own lives; second-person practices such as cooperative inquiry, addressing our ability to inquire face to face with others into issues of mutual concern, usually in small groups; and third-person research practices, creating a wider community of inquiry involving persons who cannot be known to one another face to face. The chapter discusses narrative inquiry, learning history and cooperative inquiry as major types of action research methods used in social-ecological systems (SES) research. It goes on to discuss the types of SES problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of action research methods, and suggested further readings.