Chapter 16 focuses on expert models, which are computer-based models that can mimic (or outperform) the decisions of a human expert. Expert models belong to the field of artificial intelligence and essentially use inference techniques to deduce novel information of the system under study. The chapter discusses Bayesian networks and fuzzy cognitive maps. It goes on to discuss the types of social-ecological systems (SES)problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of expert models, and suggested further readings on these methods.