Chapter 19 deals with the set of methods related to qualitative content analysis, which seeks to find and examine patterns of sense- and meaning-making in the communicative characteristics of language, by focusing on the content and underlying themes and meaning that emerge in a text. The chapter discusses discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis, thematic analysis, narrative analysis, critical narrative analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. It goes on to discuss the types of social-ecological systems (SES) problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of qualitative content analysis methods, and suggested further readings.