Chapter 22 focuses on institutional analysis, a leading interdisciplinary approach for analysing the structure of social-ecological systems (SES) problems and developing institutional solutions to address them. Institutional analysis is oriented around the role of institutions in shaping the incentives, opportunities and constraints that actors face as they interact with the environment and one another. The chapter discusses lab experiments, field experiments, models/agent-based models, case studies and large-n analysis. It goes on to discuss the types of SES problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of institutional analyses, and suggested further readings on these methods