Chapter 25 deals with historical assessment, the task of reconstructing the long-term dynamics of a social-ecological systems (SES) over time, from centuries to millennia. The chapter discusses methods related to data obtained from sediment cores, archaeological/zooarchaeological materials, dendrochronology/sclerochronology, land surveys, historical aerial photography, satellite remote sensing, documentary sources, governmental data, interviews and oral histories. It goes on to discuss the types of SES problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of historical assessment methods, and suggested further readings on these methods.