Chapter 30 focuses on flow and impact analysis, which measures how extraction, production and emission flows affect various biophysical structures or processes, which has effects (e.g. reduction of provision of ecosystem services) that result in impacts (e.g. on human well-being). The chapter discusses physical trade flows, multi-regional input-output, environmentally extended multi-regional input-output, environmental footprints, Life Cycle Assessment, energy return on investment, multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism, and global commodity chain analysis. It goes on to discuss the types of social-ecological systems (SES) problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of flow and impact analyses, and suggested further readings on these methods.