Chapter 31 concerns ecosystem service modelling, which refers to methods used to quantify ecosystem services, the benefits from nature that support and fulfil human life. The chapter discusses the decision-support modelling packages (integrated valuation of ecosystem services and trade-offs), artificial intelligence for ecosystem services and Co$ting Nature/Waterworld, as well as other technical models and frameworks. The latter include integrated assessment models, general equilibrium models, Lund–Potsdam–Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model and Life Cycle Assessment models. The chapter goes on to discuss the types of social-ecological systems (SES) problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. It also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of ecosystem service modelling, and suggested further readings.