Chapter 32 focuses on livelihood and vulnerability analysis, which draws on a wide diversity of methods to understand how individuals, households and communities make a living, generate income, sustain themselves, their assets and networks in a given social-ecological context, respond to stressors and drivers, and adapt to and cope with changing contexts and circumstances. This chapter specifically discusses sustainable livelihood analysis and vulnerability assessment. It goes on to discuss the types of social-ecological systems (SES) problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of livelihood and vulnerability analysis, and suggested further readings.