Chapter 33 synthesises the methods presented in Part 2 (Chapters 5–32) of the book, maps the current landscape of SES methods and assesses their ability to address different systemic features of social-ecological systems (SES). It engages in a reflection of common challenges researchers face when applying methods that often stem from specific disciplinary backgrounds to complex and intertwined SES. The chapter concludes with discussing SES research frontiers and emerging novel methods and method combinations.