Chapter 6 deals with the set of methods related to ecological field data-collection methods, which can be used to understand how human activities influence ecological elements and processes, and how ecological patterns and processes influence social outcomes. The chapter discusses point counts and survey grids, transects, distance and plotless sampling, quadrats, capture and mark-recapture, abiotic environmental sampling, core sampling, telemetry, and isotope and genetic analysis. It goes on to discuss the types of social-ecological systems (SES) problems and research questions commonly addressed by this set of methods, as well as their limitations, resource implications and new emerging research directions. The chapter also includes an in-depth case study showcasing the application of ecological field data-collection methods, and suggested further readings.