This chapter defines ‘Russian meddling’ as a distinct phenomenon that emerged at the time of the United States presidential elections in November 2016 based on a media analysis of mainstream Western media. It focuses on the preoccupation with Russian interference in the context of contemporary West-Russia relations and discusses what is specifically Russian about Russian meddling. The chapter outlines the work conducted by expert groups and dedicated committees to find policy responses to the vulnerabilities exposed by alleged Russian interference. There is a growing consensus on the structural nature of these vulnerabilities, and an appreciation of the fact that they must be approached without unduly focusing on the Russian component. In recent years, Russian meddling has obtained extensive media attention and has led to increased pressure on policy makers and big tech companies to find ways to protect democracy from undue external interference.