This chapter gives a critical review of the current literature, by focusing on a specific issue: can the exposure to false news actually affect people’s attitudes and behaviour, and especially voting? Fake news seems to have gained an unprecedented level of prominence through the rise of social media. Two main motivations appear as the main engine for producing fake news. The first one is pecuniary: there are a growing number of people that financially capitalise on algorithms used by social media platforms and Internet search engines. Fake news articles that go viral can in fact draw significant advertising revenue or increase the value of one’s own domain. The second motivation is ideological. Some fake news providers seek to advance politicians they favour. The chapter highlights how voting behaviour cannot be just considered the byproduct of contextual factors, limited to the peculiarities of an electoral campaign, in a specific moment in history.