While experiencing democratization and deepening of democracy, the people of South Asian countries are struggling to assert and adapt to notions of democracy. In India and Sri Lanka, the increasing influence of majoritarian democracy based on religious and ethnic communities is leading to oppression of minorities in various forms including vigilante activities. Against this oppression, citizens are protesting in support of the tenets of constitutional democracies. This book presents analyses of the dynamics of democratic practices in terms of peaceful development that promotes the coexistence of diverse social groups. The four chapters of the first part, ‘Democracy, State and Religion’, specifically address the recent intensification of majoritarian democracy by examining vigilante activities, elections, ideologies, and political institutions. The second part, ‘Democratization and Social Movements’, presents a specific examination of the development of social movements in its four chapters dealing with recent events in India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The last part, ‘How does a conflict end?’, explores this question through case studies from Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and seeks to problematize and go beyond the dichotomization of conflict and peace. This book contributes to an understanding of how democracy promotes peaceful development in South Asian multi-ethnic societies, which represents a key issue throughout the contemporary world beyond South Asia.