This chapter discusses the fate of the Tharuhat movement, which demanded an “identity-based” federal state for the Tharus of the western plains of Nepal. The demand for identity-based semi-autonomous federal states came to be a foremost political issue after the conclusion of armed conflict in 2006. The Tharuhat movement gained momentum at the end of 2007. The movement led to an agreement with the Nepali government by which the latter acknowledged specific identities of the communities such as the Tharus. However, in 2013, political parties backing identity-based federalism suffered a major loss in the second constituent assembly elections. In the summer of 2015, demonstrations occurred in many parts of the country related to the form of federalism to be defined in the new constitution. In Tikapur, in Kalilali district in far-western Nepal, during a large demonstration by the Tharuhat movement, a violent incident took place in which police officers killed. On September 20, a new constitution that Tharuhat movement participants fiercely opposed was promulgated. This chapter describes and reflects on certain moments along the trajectory of the Tharuhat movement, particularly those relating to the Tikapur incident and some actions taken by Tharu activists after the promulgation of the new constitution.