Cigarettes and tobacco products are not only some of the most smuggled goods in the world, but also provide an effective case studies into wider questions of smuggling and its study. This chapter begins by outlining global trends, nodes and structures of cigarette smuggling, noting an increasing shift towards the global south as a space of consumption. It then reviews the debate on the drivers of cigarette smuggling, noting that the prominent discourse claiming that taxation drives cigarette smuggling is at odds with a growing body of literature that both points to a wider set of drivers and to high taxation as the most effective policy tool in combatting the related health effects. Finally, it points to the role of the tobacco industry in both cigarette smuggling and its study as an important case study to illustrate the role that large formal sector companies can play in smuggling economies.