DOI link for Blue frontiers
Blue frontiers book
The oceans present infinite possibilities to smugglers and traffickers as it provides an expansive conduit via which many illegally traded commodities can be moved. Criminal actors compete with licit actors for the use of the oceans, but they also contend with those who attempt to combat their illegal activities. While responding to complex, clandestine smuggling networks on land is extremely challenging, doing so at sea comes with additional challenges, but also unique opportunities to intercept large shipments before they can reach land. This chapter takes a closer look at why and how the oceans are used to move smuggled goods, as well as who the responding actors are. This serves to provide insight into existing responses to smuggling activity at sea and whether these efforts are sufficient to combat the exploitation of the oceans for illicit means.