Since the 1980s, educational opportunities for Chinese women have been continuously increasing. The one-child policy has made some parents focus on investing in education for their daughters. In addition, the Chinese government has introduced some policies to improve women’s educational opportunities. In this context, the proportion of women in universities has increased significantly, as reflected in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Even at the master’s and doctoral levels, the proportion of women in STEM fields has increased significantly. For example, in mathematics, the proportion of female master’s students exceeds 60%, which represents a different pattern compared to Western countries. However, women continue to face some difficulties and role biases in higher education, particularly in STEM majors. This chapter points out that the high proportion of Chinese women college students in certain STEM fields is affected by two national-level policies. First, the one-child policy has changed the demographic structure of middle-class families, allowing women to obtain more educational opportunities. Second, the disciplinary structure of Chinese universities is shaped by the government’s emphasis on STEM fields, rather than individual students’ preference for STEM subjects. This finding implies that most women who have access to higher education can only choose majors within STEM fields.