The concluding chapter of the Research Handbook on Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations explores the challenges ahead for human rights law and public international law in responding to border-defying challenges such as climate change and pandemics in ways that effectively provide human rights protections to individuals and communities. To realize the promise and potential of human rights law, the chapter calls for moving beyond territorially based understandings of jurisdiction, recognizing the notion of global obligations as a way forward and conceptualizing a more expansive understanding of responsibility for human rights violations.