Major challenges or problems in modern European history are often termed ‘questions’. Liberal nation-states in nineteenth-century Europe constantly encountered categories of people considered difficult or impossible to include. The Jewish question heralded the dark side of European nationalism, while colonialism added systematic racism to the political inventories of European liberalism. With the so-called refugee crisis in 2015, European leaders turned migration into a Muslim question. This chapter deals with the responses provided by peoples who European states deemed unfit, problematic, and questionable. It examines how the pariahs (Arendt), the ‘parasites’ (Serres), the Muslims, and the migrants signal the limits of European liberalism and designate new ways of imagining an intercultural, transnational, and entangled Europe.