Narendra Modi is the most dominant Indian politician of his generation, an authoritarian who exercises obsessive control over his image and whose personal popularity has helped him win two extraordinary election victories. This chapter explores his rise to power, the evolution of his distinctive approach to governance while chief minister of Gujarat, and the manner in which he has retained high levels of public support as prime minister. The essay argues that aside from Modi’s commitment and ambition, his use of identity politics and his capacity to tap into popular aspirations as well as his tactical flexibility and remarkable capacity for reinvention help explain his success and his autocratic tendencies.