This chapter examines jihadi militancy and the Houthi insurgency in Yemen in their historical contexts. It provides a brief overview of the modern history of Yemen. It also examines the emergence of al-Qaida in Yemen, its merger with the Saudi branch to form al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula in 2009, and its evolution during the course of the ongoing civil war. It briefly addresses the fleeting rise of the Islamic State in Yemen in 2014 and explains why it failed to flourish. Finally, the chapter turns to the much more significant Houthi insurgency, which took over the reins of government, sparking an internationalized civil war in 2015. It examines from where the Houthis came and how they were able to quickly overrun much of the country.