This chapter concludes the book by summarising the main findings and making a comparative analysis of the 11 case studies. Varying forms of change, material and non-material, are found across the cases illuminating the role of protests as engines of democracy and good governance. Contestation was fundamental to policy change, political alternation, and increased accountability, but also in generating awareness, solidarities, and new perceptions of political engagement. Opportunities emanating from the institutional and the cultural sphere were important for attaining more successful outcomes but acted alongside other aspects – such as the movement's organisational capacity and framing strategies. Future research should embrace a more open-ended notion of change going beyond materialistic terms, advance dynamic frameworks of protest analysis that survey the role of political opportunities and other social movement approaches from a comparative perspective; and place a stronger focus on rural Africa.