This chapter takes a gender perspective on the water-conflict nexus that is frequently alluded to in literature. Various theories and empirical studies interrogate the water-related causes of transboundary conflict, while others discuss elements that drive violence at different levels of scale. However, there is little consensus on the complex links between water and security. There is further a lack of awareness on how gender causally relates to the development, practice, and impacts of water conflict. Through a broad literature review, this chapter assesses how gender roles, identities, institutions, and ideologies interact in water and conflict across levels of scale. The findings broaden and deepen discourse of the relationship between gender and water conflict to build an understanding of the complex conflict dynamics, support gender-sensitive interventions in transboundary basins, and interrogate dominant discourses of gendered water conflict.