At the end of the 1970s, the Basque Country, one of the oldest Indigenous cultures in Europe, was emerging from 40 years of dictatorship in which any expression of local culture had been repressed. The area, bordering Spain and France, was experiencing an industrial collapse that generated high unemployment and an international image directly associated with terrorist violence. Despite these circumstances, the Basque people managed to transform their economy and industrial base. The Basque Country now leads international rankings in advanced manufacturing, education, and health care, and has also generated a balanced distribution of wealth. This chapter aims to share some of the key elements that made this extraordinary civic transformation possible.