Rural areas have become increasingly important for sustainable energy transition, mainly as a resource for the production of renewable energy. However, rural areas do not merely provide the land for harnessing renewable energy, such as wind energy, for the benefit of urban growth centres. In turn, both the rural economy and livelihood of rural communities are variously affected by an increased utilisation of renewable resources, too. This chapter will focus on the interrelationship between rural areas and the development of renewable energy in the UK. In doing so, it will first shed light on how the interplay between renewable energy and rural areas has been governed in the UK, with a particular focus on the devolved government in Scotland, and then discuss to what extent this relationship has been shaped by EU policies and programmes. The chapter will then reflect on how recent trends towards rural energy transition may be impacted by Brexit and sketch out scenarios for the implications of Brexit for the sustainable future of rural communities in the UK. Particular focus will be on community energy initiatives in peripheral areas that have emerged in light of (and response to) austerity politics and ideals of asset-based community development.