Drawing mainly on archival sources, economic press, and technical reports, this chapter offers new insights into Yugoslav attempts to bolster cooperation with South American countries in the 1950s and 1960s and gives special attention to the role of migration in this cooperation. It analyzes the ideological and economic underpinnings of such endeavours in the context of Yugoslavia’s attempts to widen its network of political and economic partners in the “Third World”. Moreover, it examines official policies toward Yugoslav diasporas in South America, particularly focusing on the cases of Chile and Argentina. Finally, the chapter also identifies a number of forms of political and academic mobility that arose directly out of the diverse forms of cooperation that Yugoslavia managed to establish in the Southern Cone in the early Cold War, including academic exchange, political travels, and support for South American political refugees.