Source document (SD) analysis is an essential process that forms the basis of the subsequent core process of translation. However, the detailed operations required for SD analysis have not been sufficiently formalised. Here, we define the following two phases of the SD analysis process: (1) specifying the properties of the SD that would serve as factors for decision-making in the translation process, and (2) identifying the elements within the SD that are to be properly transferred into a target language. Correspondingly, we have developed fine-grained comprehensive typologies of SD properties and elements as metalanguages. In this chapter, we first discuss the role of the SD analysis in the overall flow of translation and introduce our review-based method to build metalanguages. We then present the typologies of the SD properties and elements with examples. We also delineate an outlook for the effective deployment of our metalanguages.