ABSTRACT

The chapter explores the potential applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in the propagation of disinformation and misinformation, as well as in the context of hybrid and asymmetric warfare. AI is a double-edged sword that can be weaponized by hostile actors, but could also be used to detect and mitigate threats. The lexicon related to infodemiology, developed in the context of pandemic misinformation, is provided to introduce the vocabulary used throughout the chapter. The main part of the chapter is devoted primarily to the applications of AI and associated Information Technologies in the processes of generating and detecting misinformation. The theories behind Generative Adversarial Networks and Large Language Models are explored. A separate section introduces the methods for the detection of generated text and other traits of disinformation produced by AI. The complex interactions in social networks are explained using a wide range of theories to show the multifaceted dimensions of online interactions that include the spread of false information in online communities. The chapter explains how the referenced methods help to understand how links are formed, how information is disseminated, and how information can influence opinions and actions in social networks. The infodemics environment is illustrated with the examples of the strategies applied and implemented by the Russian Federation and China to exert influence abroad. The United States is presented both as a target of state-sponsored disinformation and a highly polarized arena of misinformation and conspiracy theories often due to politicization.