This chapter sets the stage by providing a critical reflection on the current state of research with and about international students. Reflecting on the history of the research subfield, the chapter outlines common areas in focus for research over the last 30 years, including a reflection on how this subfield has shaped and developed over time. We also outline key gaps in the literature, including topics that are currently under-researched, methodological approaches that are currently under-utilised, and voices that are currently silenced or under-represented. Linking with chapters that follow, we reflect on the concepts and practices that currently inhibit critical research on this topic, proposing directions for future research and providing the foundation for conceptualisations in the chapters to come.