The final chapter summarizes small states’ perceptions of European strategic autonomy, highlighting their expectations, concerns, and areas, where they interests contradict or converge. The case studies suggest that national approaches mainly stem from pragmatic national security and foreign policy considerations ignoring grand geostrategic ideas (Atlanticist and Continentalist cleavages). Though small EU member states arrive at different conclusions concerning European strategic autonomy, their approaches to its fundamental outputs are surprisingly similar at their core. Critics and champions alike bring forward policy proposals within the framework of European strategic autonomy that could benefit their security if NATO and the EU clearly share their responsibilities in the European security architecture.