For Latvia, the European strategic autonomy arrived at the wrong time and in the wrong form. Latvia’s key focus since 2014 has been on ensuring greater NATO presence in the Baltic region and consistent US involvement in European security. In addition, Latvia has been a long-time critic of Europe’s military weakness, and the ESA has been a step towards remedying that. Latvia’s involvement with the ESA, however, has been limited because of its limited potential to contribute to the security of the Baltic region. Over time, Latvia’s approach to the ESA has become less pessimistic because of the European Union’s potential to tackle hybrid threats and opportunities for Latvia’s emerging defence industry. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is likely to increase Latvia’s reliance on NATO, but it is also likely to facilitate further European defence integration.