This chapter is focused on Lithuania’s perspective on European strategic autonomy, addressing it against the backdrop of Russia’s war against Ukraine, agreement on the European Union Strategic Compass, and discussions about the evolution of the Common Security and Defence Policy. The chapter focuses on Lithuania’s national interests as perceived by political elites and depicted in national foreign and security policy strategies. It discusses the emerging national discourse on ESA and how national positions change as this concept evolves. The chapter also addresses the foreign and security policy gains Lithuania might attain under the development of the EU CSDP and the ESA. Finally, it discusses Lithuania’s perception of how regional autonomy per se affects regional relations with the strategic transatlantic partners, particularly the USA.