This chapter asks whether the Norwegian welfare state is at a crossroads. First, the chapter identifies and elaborates on the key components of a welfare state, as well as its types and preconditions. Second, the status of the “Nordic model” is examined by considering the conceptual framework of individual rights and elements of citizenship. Directly or indirectly, the challenges elaborated on in the subsequent chapters of this book include maintaining political and union support for the welfare state, the handling of a more heterogeneous society and increased inequalities and social exclusion. An important argument that is highlighted in the chapter is that the realisation of citizenship (civil, political and social) requires solid, well-functioning and stable public and political institutions. This cannot be taken for granted. Gradual and incremental changes can cause greater challenges for the welfare state and our political community in the long term.