The transformation of democratic systems is based on several theoretical concepts, including the participation and inclusion of citizens in decision-making processes. The idea of participation, which is gradually becoming more widespread, is not limited to the political sphere but also includes social and civic practices and the field of science. A new relationship between science and society should be democratic, empower members of society in the research process and involve them in cocreation, as well as valuing local knowledge and experiences when making theoretical interpretations of social reality.

The research results show that the vast majority of the citizens participating in the public consultations, regardless of the country in which they took place, considered the procedure used to gather information to be appropriate for approaching the issues addressed in the project and for allowing them to express their own views, while being receptive to those of others. Furthermore, they believed that consultations were a good way of familiarising people with scientific issues and involving them in important decision-making processes.

The citizens from the countries involved, namely, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Portugal and Italy, are characterised by different cultures of science communication and degrees of willingness to participate in public initiatives of this sort.