Policies and programmes to support adolescent girls are gaining increasing government and development partner attention in Ethiopia, but are being played out against a complex and rapidly evolving political landscape. Building on a political economy framework that highlights the importance of what Rosendorff terms the ‘Three I’s’ – institutions, ideas and interests – this chapter draws on findings from a multi-year qualitative research study on the factors that limit adolescent girls’ capabilities to explore the politics of development programming for adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia. This chapter begins by exploring the growing institutional support for improving girls’ education and ending child marriage, then goes on to explore how the ideas and interests – of girls, parents, communities, non-government organisations (NGOs) and the government – continue to limit discourse, primarily because of a lack of concerted attention to gender norms. The chapter concludes by discussing context-sensitive entry points and challenges for programmes designed to support adolescent girls and promote positive change in gender norms, drawing on examples of existent programming.