The complex relationship between privacy and security is not least affected by the rapid dynamics of technical change. The employment of surveillance-oriented security technologies (SOSTs) is mostly based on a model that frames privacy and security as a trade-off. The complexity of the privacy-security interplay is substantially influenced by a conceptual framing which presents both concepts as contradictory to each other. The role and meaning of security has significantly changed since the 1990s after the end of the Cold War. During the Cold War, traditional state-centred security was the dominating concept aiming at protecting the integrity of the state from different kinds of threats mainly with technical and military power. A prominent argument to justify security and surveillance measures which intrude into privacy is the statement 'those who have nothing to hide have nothing to fear'. This argument implies that one does not need to worry about privacy infringement and surveillance if one behaves correctly.