This chapter, the term "credentialing examination" refers to both licensure and certification tests. This chapter is organized around the protecting the public, testing accommodations policies, test security policies, and test construction procedures broad issues and corresponding questions related to major aspects credentialing examination programs that have been challenged in litigation. A credentialing examination case may involve issues of federal and/or state law and may be filed in a federal or state court. A judicial decision applies only to cases that are factually similar and is binding only on lower courts and administrative agencies in the jurisdiction in which the case was decided, although judges in other jurisdictions have discretionary authority to cite and adopt its holdings. Courts have routinely recognized the Standards for Educational and Psychological Measurement as an appropriate source of authority for expert opinions in credentialing cases and competing interpretations have been offered and debated by expert witnesses.