ABSTRACT

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013) prominently feature three-dimensional learning—the integration of disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific and engineering practices. This tripartite emphasis raises methodological challenges for researchers and educators seeking to examine, and thus uncover, the ways in which science and engineering content, processes, and practices are ongoing social constructions in educational settings. The methodological challenges include understanding the cognitive, social, and interpersonal factors supporting or constraining the learning of these disciplinary ideas, concepts, and practices.