The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate the theory and research methods leading to decisions made while using a large video archive to investigate students and teachers socially constructing the phenomena of failure and improvement in elementary engineering design projects. I will also describe the development of an analytic rubric as a way to investigate socioculturally constructed phenomena in situ, including the comparison of the student discourse from the video and journal writings as a way of establishing validity for the analysis of student artifacts as complementary to video analysis. The chapter is organized using the research method framework described in Chapter 1 (Kelly & Green, this volume).