The aim of this study is to further the understanding of Japan’s power in international affairs, and to do so through the application of a relational concept of power. This aim is operationalized in the study by analyzing if and how Japan has exercised power over a crucial counterpart like China with regard to significant issues in the bilateral relationship such as investment protection and the disputed Pinnacle (Senkaku or Diaoyu) Islands. Although the empirical focus on issues in Japan’s China occupies well over half of the book, even to justify its title, it is nonetheless secondary to the question of how to describe and assess Japanese foreign policy in terms of power.