In 2005-6 fi eldwork participants identifi ed certain interconnected issues, relevant to both genetic research and research with human subjects more broadly, which are particularly pertinent to Kenya and South Africa. These can be categorized as: protection of research subjects; health development, capacity building and benefi t sharing; capacity for ethical review; and public understanding and engagement. This chapter assesses how effectively these issues are being dealt with by the two countries, through their reinvigorated ethical systems. It also considers the impact of UNESCO’s capacity-building programmes in Kenya, particularly in the area of education and asks whether further activities in both Kenya and South Africa would be well received by the genetics and bioethics communities.