The preceding regional chapters have discussed the cultural patterns, nature-society relationships, development issues, and environmental issues in various parts of the non-Western world. In this chapter various threads of ideas discussed in the preceding chapters are pulled together to explore the future prospects of the non-Western world and the important challenges it faces. Before we discuss future prospects and challenges, and growth and change in the non-Western world since 1950s, let us look briefly at the nonWestern world as it has changed from 1000 to 2000.