Modern urban planning systems in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Scandinavia, and other European countries follow a decentralized model in which local governments hold general planning authority. In Japan, although the system of modern city planning has learned much from the experiences of these countries, it has been institutionalized as a centralized system for more than half a century. 2QO\LQZLWKWKHHQDFWPHQWRIWKH&LW\3ODQQLQJ/DZshin toshi keikaku

hôZDVWKHÀUVWVWHSWDNHQWRZDUGWUDQVIHUULQJSRZHUIURPFHQWUDOJRYHUQPHQW WRORFDODGPLQLVWUDWLRQV2YHUWKHQH[W\HDUVFLWL]HQSDUWLFLSDWLRQLQSODQQLQJ decisions increased and local planning authorities gained power. The next step, RQHWKDWLVLPPLQHQWERWKLQWKHÀHOGRIFLW\SODQQLQJDQGLQORFDOJRYHUQDQFHLV the decentralization of public administration under a set of laws. The relationship between local activity and decentralization – the focus of this discussion – is one of the key current issues of Japan’s urban policy.