In local communities throughout Japan today, machizukuri, or communitybuilding, is prevalent. Literally, machi PHDQV ´FRPPXQLW\µ DQG zukuri, ´EXLOGLQJµ RU ´PDNLQJµ DQG WKLV WHUP LV XVHG WR DSSO\ WR D ZLGH YDULHW\ RI activities. Government-sponsored road construction, citizen-led monitoring of municipal governance, the erection of apartment buildings by private developers, and even karaoke parties held by communities all often fall under the heading of machizukuri.