The development of the National Museum of Antiquities and the biographies of the main characters involved in the growth of the archaeological collections in Leiden cannot be understood without paying attention to the history and the cultural climate in the Netherlands in the period before and after the years of Napoleon’s occupation of the Low Countries. The political union of the Kingdom of the Netherlands came to an end in 1830, when riots broke out in Brussels against the king. These riots led to an insurrection and the proclamation of an independent Belgian state. By royal decree of 13 June 1818 Caspar Reuvens was appointed Professor of Archaeology at the University of Leiden. For the reconstruction of the way in which the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden was created, the motives behind the actions of the main characters, the organization of travel and trade and the political background, archives are of paramount importance.