Britain has been characterized as the ‘first industrial nation’, but progress towards a predominantly industrial society has not been straightforward (Wrigley, 1972; Thompson, 1973; Mathias, 1983; Mathias and Davis, 1989; Hudson, 1992). The experience of economic modernization, and associated technological, social, cultural and political transformations were not spread evenly, but varied between regions and economic sectors. This chapter begins by outlining the main dimensions of change and hypothesizing the ways in which the processes of industrialization and labour market change were related to population migration. Subsequent sections then examine in detail the extent to which mobility was stimulated by economic factors, variations in mobility by region and economic sector, the links between migration and social mobility and the changing relationship between home and workplace.