This chapter provides an overview of the research material discussed in Chapter 5 in relation to national and regional planning policy, and Chapters 6-11 in relation to local planning. The two key questions set at the commencement of the book can be revisited at this point. How is British planning affected by Europe? How does British planning relate to European initiatives? The discussion that follows provides answers to these questions. The ﬁrst section assesses the local level and the range of European inﬂuences that can affect both statutory planning and the context of planning locally. The second section discusses national and regional planning issues within a wider debate on the remit and purpose of planning at member state level.