Chapter 4 provides pertinent information about the pāḍdana, or oral epics, which describe the origins of the deities and are drawn upon to ascribe the ranks and ritual duties of Perar families. Pāḍdanas are stories about the original relationships between humans and deities, especially about the relationships between the guttu families and the royal būtas. Referred to as ‘matters of history’ by villagers, these serve to warrant each family’s status and the relations among families in the village. Pāḍdanas are not holy scriptures, but oral epics that are spread and passed down through ritual performance. Since there is always a possibility for a pāḍdana to be slightly changed in a performance, its contents regarding the ranks and roles of the families often become points of controversy among villagers.